Wednesday, August 26, 2020

Atokawa Advantage Management Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3000 words - 1

Atokawa Advantage Management - Essay Example While a considerable piece of the revealing and operational prerequisites of Atokowa is right now being tended to by the framework, the strain of development would just fuel the circumstance. In the event that the extension activity of Custom Print and the Online Ordering technique is suspended the development of Atokowa will be hindered and its winding decay will start on the grounds that the current troubles in the framework will just benefit from itself. The activities of George Hargreaves and Hayley Atokowa will broaden the income stream of Atokowa and simultaneously extend the market while enlarging the customer demography of Atokowa. Notwithstanding, executing it as of now will possibly significantly increase if not twofold the operational issues of Atokowa actualizing it after the fruition of an Enterprise Resource Planning Solution turn out would be perfect if not the best. ... Under the authority of Jonathan, Atokowa has extended to a few stores all around Australia providin g food generally to individual and business clients in and around the area where Atokowa stores are at. This paper would introduce the investigation of the activity of Atokowa to decide challenge regions, improvement territories, and development zones. The motivation behind the investigation is to prescribe arrangements that will empower Atokowa to determine its present issues if there are any and react to the requests of the ever-changing business sector scene in the fixed and office flexibly retail industry. This report will initially introduce the aftereffect of the examination led on the activity of Atokowa that will characterize in detail the investigation of center zones. After the examination of the center zones, an evaluation of the center territory will be finished up for motivations behind prescribing potential answers for the difficulties presented in the center zone. Because of imperatives, this paper will just present the perceptions in the examination and not the proce dure where the investigation was directed and the perception was shown up at. In outline, the examination in the activity of the center regions will be given in seriatim as it was introduced in the report. The end or evaluation will follow a short time later then the suggestions that ought to be attempted by the administration of Atokowa to determine its present difficulties. It would be ideal if you note that this paper will just concentrate on the innovative answers for resolve the operational and the executives difficulties of Atokowa. Examination of Current Systems and Operations The accompanying center territories were featured in the investigation of the business instance of Atokowa.â

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Comparing and contrasting Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Looking into - Essay Example arrangement as for the control of funds, intensity of the electorate in regard of revision of the constitution just as the job of the executive and president in both Australia and USA. At last, the paper presents the individual who built up the Constitution for the particular nations and examine the significance of such a people or substance. The forces of the state in the two nations are constrained by the council and legal executive. The High Court of Australia and the governing body beware of the forces of the state. The Australian Constitution Section 61 The primary sight assessment of Australia and USA uncovers comparative frameworks of government. The two countries have united countries. The ability to administer is in this manner shared among national and state governments. Australian Constitution elucidates the authoritative, the official, and the legal arms of the Australian administration. In any case, Australia has a constrained division of forces. The individuals from Australian Executive are drawn from the governing body or parliament. Then again, the individuals from the Judiciary, for example, the High Court Judges are Governor General Appointees while being prompted by the Executive (Saunders, 2008). Then again, the Constitution of United States shows the different authoritative, official and legal arms of the administration. Dissimilar to, Australia the US Constitution forbids the individuals from Congress including the House of Representatives and the Senate from being named to administrators workplaces. In addition, the United States’ bureau individuals can never be individuals from governing body, in contrast to Australia and consequently the US President and Secretaries are precluded from being individuals from the Congress. The parliamentary sway in the two nations emerges from their job of law making process as all the bills must be passed and endorsed by the parliament. In any case, in the United States the Supreme Courts can trim the laws made dependent on their shrewdness, legality, and usefulness.

Friday, August 21, 2020

The Use of Persuasive Appeals

The Use of Persuasive Appeals Standing in the check-out line, I glanced at the rows of gum to my right. Instantly, my tongue slid across my front teeth. Had I forgotten to brush? Automatically, it seemed, my right hand closed over a package of Dentyne, and an echo rumbled in my head: Nine out of ten doctors recommend…When it comes to persuasion, our advertisers truly deliver the goods. A solid ad hits its audience, grabs their attention, hooks and lands itâ€"in thirty-seconds flat. So, while we might find many advertising approaches to be annoying, we must admit that they do work. They draw, in fact, upon two thousand years of sound rhetorical theory. So, using them for support when creating our own persuasive messages can be extremely effective.In the fifth century B.C., Aristotle wrote his three-volume Poetics, providing advice to those preparing to argue cases in Greeces courts. His second volume still serves as a striking study of human nature in which the philosopher outlines three basic types of appeals w hich can be used to motivate and persuade audiences. Aristotle labeled these persuasive appeals ethos, logos, and pathos. Marketing experts still apply them to their work, and writers charged with the task of creating persuasive messages can benefit from their use as well.EthosToday, we think of ethical practices as being right, just and true; and we think of ethical people as being of good character. Thus, using ethos or ethical appeals means relying on character or personhood as a means of persuasion. Using ethical appeals involves providing testimony from people that we admire, respect or like. Effective ethical appeals involve endorsement by quoting:Celebrities - people we admire and emulate because of their talent or fameExperts or authorities â€" people we respect because of their knowledge or positionsOur friends and neighbors â€" the people we like because they are just like usLogosLogical appeals are rooted in reason and proof. Using logos involves providing an audience wit h reasons for adopting a proposed attitude, belief, value or practice. Those reasons are then supported with evidence drawn from facts and figures, studies and statistics.PathosEmotional appeals are rooted in feeling. Emotional appeals tap our capacities for laughter and tears. Thus, using pathos involves providing illustrations and examples of peoples experiences as recounted in real life or literature.When we understand Aristotles basic appeals, it is easy to spot examples of their use in our media and apply them to our own persuasive messages. A word of caution, though, is important here. When advertisers use these appeals, they tend to use them exclusively. In a single print item or thirty-second spot, an advertiser will probably use only one type of appeal. In longer messages, though, the exclusive use of any one type can actually boomerang or backfire. When a writer seems to endlessly quote others, an audience begins to wonder if he or she has anything of his or her own to pro vide. Audiences generally have to work to fully grasp the meaning of statistics or scientific data; thus, their overuse can have a numbing effect.And, finally, too much emotion can result in maudlin or melodramatic messages that end up putting audiences at bay. The classical Greek principle of moderation and balance in all things is a wise one to follow when it comes to persuasion.So, when it comes time to place supporting material in your persuasive messages, look for a healthy balance of testimony, evidence, and illustration. After all, nine out of ten doctors recommend a balanced diet.

Sunday, May 24, 2020

National Debt Is Necessary For The Funding Of Federal...

National debt is necessary for the funding of federal programs. Government spending is not only a focus of the United State’s political system, but it affects one’s personal choices and lifestyle. There is a concern with where and why money is spent. A key aspect of government spending is allocated to education. Education is fundamental in how one benefits society and the economy. The United States education program is not only necessary for the success of the country, but it is in need of a more efficient system with increased funding. Education is the foundation of a person’s success and way of life. Graduating from school is important not only for an individual, but it helps the local and national economy. A study by the Alliance for Excellent Education shows that with higher graduation rates among high school students, the economies of cities, states, and of the country would increase (Rollins). Compared to the rest of the world, the United States spends a la rge amount of money on education (U.S. Education). While many may think this sufficient, Professor Bruce Baker discusses the correlation between supporting schools with federal funding and the success of students, â€Å"When schools have more money, they have greater opportunity to spend productively. When they don’t, they can’t† (ii, Baker). If students are to graduate and contribute to the boost of economies, education must be the forefront of federal funding. The United States is spending what seems to be likeShow MoreRelatedEssay On The Federal Budget1072 Words   |  5 PagesThe United States is on a fiscally unsustainable path with the national debt at $19.8 trillion as of July 2017. 2016 federal spending exceeded revenue by $552 billion and is anticipated exceeding revenue for the foreseeable future creating a strategic challenge to our domestic economy (Deliver, 2017). The 2017 federal debt is at 77 % of gross domestic product (GDP) making it the high est public debt since World War II. The 2018 federal budget estimated impact is the deficit will increase to 79.8%Read MoreNational Deficit and National Debt Essay982 Words   |  4 PagesThe growing national deficit is a looming problem in the United States now more than ever. The national debt is constantly increasing and government spending is out of control. If these issues are not solved then they could spell disaster for the nation’s economy when the infamous debt ceiling is finally reached. Currently the national policy on the debt is to continue raising the debt limit until a solution is found that is agreeable between both parties in Congress. The two main issues of overRead MoreEffects of Long-Term Deficit Spending1687 Words   |  7 PagesThe Effects of Long-term Deficit Spending ECO 203 Prof. Kristian  Morales October 3, 2011 The Effects of Long-term Deficit Spending In times of hardship, economist Maynard Keynes noted that the federal government not only has a responsibility to help revive the economy, but is often the only solution when a recession grows deep enough. He argued that the basic problem of a severe recession is a lack of investment on the part of business despite low interest rates. The answer whenRead MoreThe Current Total U.s. National Debt1070 Words   |  5 PagesGovernment Spending 1. What is the current total U.S. National Debt? ïÆ'Ëœ The current total U.S. National Debt is: 18,150,545,316,215 (Get Involved 2015). 2. In what year did debt as a percentage of GDP achieve record highs? How high was it? Based on current projections when will debt reach that share of GDP again? ïÆ'Ëœ The year the debt percentage of the GDP achieved record highs was 1946, at 106.1. (Get Involved 2015). The debt will reach that share of GDP again in approximately 2031 (Get InvolvedRead MoreHow Large Is The Current U.S. Budget Deficit And How Has1485 Words   |  6 Pagesrepresented 3.2 % of gross domestic product (GDP) rising from 2.4% in FY 2015 (Congressional Budget Office, 2017). If the average American household attempted to operate like this, they would quickly find themselves bankrupt and homeless. Why is the federal government allowed to have a fiscal policy that spends more than it takes in, and who is to blame? Traditionally, the President submits a budget to Congress covering expected revenue and proposed spending. Ultimately, Congress must then pass appropriationsRead MoreThe Debt Of The National Debt1208 Words   |  5 PagesThe National Debt consists of the total debt accrued by local, state and federal. Public debt is essentially the federal debt, thus co mpiling the staggering number that already exists. The debt deficit to me is astonishing. Currently, the total public debt in the United States, as of December 16, 2015, is $18,788,138,221,346.49. This includes $13,600,726,418,253.26 debt held by the public and $5,187,411,803,093.23 by intergovernmental holdings (usgovermentdebt, 2015). High GPD is not anything newRead MoreImpact Of The New Deal On The Great Depression1355 Words   |  6 Pageseconomy. Unlike Hoover, FDR introduced experimental ideas and programs to help solve the issue. These ideas and programs would become a part of Roosevelt s policies known as the New Deal which sought to fix America’s economic struggles. Despite short term successes, the New Deal implemented during the 1930 s by FDR did not lift the United States out of the Great Depression. Instead by intervening in the economy, and creating huge debt, the New Deal prolonged the Great Depression. The New Deal aimedRead MoreNational Debt : The Hamilton Proposal1309 Words   |  6 PagesNicholas Kasper Professor Badri Jawad Economics 201 August 10, 2014 National Debt: the Hamilton Proposal. Ever since the 1970s, increased government spending has lead to a $17.6 trillion debt. The government can alter this debt by the use of fiscal policy. Politicians are given two ways to do this, either increase taxes or reduce government spending. The Hamilton project proposes 15 different ways to reduce the deficit, which are broken down into four sections; social safety nets, tax reform, newRead MoreHow Political Parties Developed in the Federal Government763 Words   |  3 PagesIn the late eighteenth century parties developed gradually after the inauguration of the federal government in the United States which gave rise to persistent divisions among the officeholders. This was mainly because there were questions on the extent of the new government’s powers and authority. There were no proper structures on the powers and jurisdiction of the national and state government which led to conflicts. This was finally revealed in 1791 when the debate over the establishment of theRe ad MoreFiscal Policy Paper Eco3721409 Words   |  6 PagesThe United States deficit, surplus, and debt will always have an impact on taxpayers. In the state of high deficit the government seeks ways to cut and save money for debt payment. The government does this by pulling funding from programs that have little government impact. Increasing taxes also supplies the government with extra income. In addition to the reduction or elimination of certain tax credits, the government analyzes school funding for cost effectiveness. Each step the government takes

Thursday, May 14, 2020

The Tragedy Of Othello By William Shakespeare - 938 Words

â€Å"The Tragedy of Othello† is commonly considered one of Shakespeare s greatest tragedies and one of his finest works. In this play we see many literary devices at work. Several of these devices are involved in Iago’s deceitful plot against Othello that creates much suspense for the duration of the play. In â€Å"The Tragedy of Othello,† William Shakespeare uses symbolism, irony, and tone to create this classic drama. Symbols are central to understanding â€Å"Othello† as a play. There are two significant symbols in â€Å"The Tragedy of Othello†: the handkerchief and the â€Å"Willow† song. The handkerchief is the most important symbol in this drama as it represents many different things for different characters in the play. To Desdemona the handkerchief functions as a token of Othello’s love because it was his first gift to her (Shmoop Editorial Team). As for Othello we see it represent to him his love for Desdemona being his first gift to her, and later in the play representing his suspicion of her in regards to her fidelity. When Othello begins to suspect that Desdemona has been unfaithful and has given Cassio her handkerchief, he tells her that the stitching of the red strawberries â€Å"was dyed in mummy which the skillful conserved of maidens hearts† (Shakespeare 1350). In this way, the handkerchief resembles a white wedding sheet that has been stained with a virgin s blood (Shmoop Editorial Team). In Othello’s mind, as long as Desdemona has the handkerchief she is chaste, but if she â€Å"losesShow MoreRelatedThe Tragedy Of Othello By William Shakespeare757 Words   |  4 Pages The Tragedy of Othello by William Shakespeare William Shakespeare uses many literary devices to enhance and provide greater complexity in his works. More specifically, the theme, symbolism, and dramatic irony are used to enrich Shakespeare’s The Tragedy of Othello. The plot is definitely engaging but the theme allows for an universal human correspondence, furthering the depth of the author’s message. The element of symbolism contributes to the theme of Shakespeare’s tragedy. Symbolism expressesRead MoreThe Tragedy Of Othello By William Shakespeare Essay1537 Words   |  7 PagesDrake Usher Ms. Zamanis Honors English II March 18, 2016 Othello Essay â€Å"The Tragedy of Othello,† by William Shakespeare, is about the tragic downfall of a once great man named Othello by the manipulation of Iago, the antagonist of the story. However, a deeper meaning of Othello could be â€Å"[It] is a tragedy of incomprehension, not at the level on intrigue but at the deepest level of human dealings. No one in Othello come to understand himself or anyone else.† It is debated on whether or not this isRead MoreThe Tragedy Of Othello By William Shakespeare Essay1418 Words   |  6 Pagesentertainment through their literature since the first known published work. However, for many centuries the writer has also been seen to have a diagnostic function, scrutinizing the ills of their society and portraying them for the world to see. William Shakespeare, 1564-1616, was an English playwright, poet and actor, widely regarded as the greatest writer in the English language and the world s most distinguished dramatist. His surviving works, incl uding some collaborations, consist of about 38 playsRead MoreThe Tragedy Of Othello By William Shakespeare1141 Words   |  5 Pages2 Hr 16 December 2014 Othello Essay The Tragedy of Othello The renowned play of Othello was written by William Shakespeare in the 17th century. The drama follows the life of Othello, a well-respected and admired Venetian general, and the lie he gets tangled up in. Othello is deceived by his â€Å"trustworthy† friend, Iago, who confidently convinces Othello that his honest wife, Desdemona, committed infidelity upon him with his honorable lieutenant, Cassio. At the start, Othello doesn’t quite believe IagoRead MoreThe Tragedy Of Othello By William Shakespeare1737 Words   |  7 PagesThe Tragedy of Othello the: Moor of Venice was written by William Shakespeare, and it is only one of countless notable plays he wrote. A reoccurring theme in Othello is jealousy brought on usually by deception; throughout the play people often hide their true intentions and are not always what they appear to be like W.H Auden said â€Å"There s always another story. There s more than meets the eye.† The relationships Iago built on manipulatio n, lies, and false promises were a crucial part of the play;Read MoreThe Tragedy Of Othello By William Shakespeare998 Words   |  4 Pages The Tragedy of Othello: The Moor of Venice is William Shakespeare’s play, written around sixteen hundreds. The Tragedy of Othello is not just a story of jealousy; this is a tragedy of the clash of two worlds. One of them is a world of absolute cynic, manipulate or Iago; the second world is the world of all the other characters in the tragedy, including, possibly, even Othello. Even though both of the main male characters, Iago and Othello, are murderers, they have different types of charactersRead MoreThe Tragedy Of Othello By William Shakespeare864 Words   |  4 PagesIn the play The Tragedy of Othello, The Moor of Venice by William Shakespeare, Emilia is portrayed as a women who doesn’t have enough self-confidence. She does many awful misdeeds to please her husband, and hopes that he will give her some affection. She just want to make her husband happy. Emilia betrayed her lady Desdemona, because Lago asked for her handkerchief for a while and since she just dropp ed it, suddenly, Emilia thought that this was her opportunity to quickly grab it and make LagoRead MoreThe Tragedy Of Othello By William Shakespeare1133 Words   |  5 PagesThe Tragedy of Othello, the Moor of Venice, is a play written by William Shakespeare between 1601 and 1604 in England. Shakespeare is a legendary author, poet, and play writer. He has wrote many plays like Romeo and Juliet, Hamlet, Macbeth, and King Lear Othello is about a black general by the name of Othello who is desperately in love with a young woman named Desdemona. They marry and attempt to build a life together, even though Othello is way older than she is, he’s black, and did not come fromRead MoreThe Tragedy Of Othello By William Shakespeare1854 Words   |  8 PagesThe play â€Å"The Tragedy of Othello, the Moor of Venice† by William Shakespeare is often listed among the greatest stories of tragedies which explores numerous controversial topics including Inter-racial marriage, racism, j ealousy and revenge. While the titular character Othello is the protagonist of the story and definitely does occupy a large part of the play, the real focus of the play is on the ‘ingenuous’ Iago who makes everyone dance on his fingers and successfully manipulates them. The â€Å"Honest†Read MoreThe Tragedy Of William Shakespeare s Othello959 Words   |  4 Pagesthey have to deal with. According to, a struggle is defined as, â€Å"a forceful/violent attempt or effort to get free from restraint or contrition†. Some of these personal struggles are more pronounced than other. From Othello, the tragedy by William Shakespeare, we can see how humans are faced with individual contentions, and their daily actions are ways and efforts of trying to free themselves. In the discussion below we consider Othello’s struggle with being different, gullibility, timidity

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Teenage Pregnancy Amongst Blacks and Hispanic Teenagers

Teenage Pregnancies among Blacks and Hispanics 11/09/2012 Tina Trent TEENAGE PREGNANCY AMONG BLACK amp; HISPANIC GIRLS Birth rates in African American and Hispanic teens are substantially higher than whites, a trend that has persisted for decades. Even though pregnancy rates among teens are at an all time low. It is still a major issue but mostly affecting the urban communities. In this research paper I will be comparing and demonstrating the relationships between teenage pregnancy, social issues, and education. Teen pregnancy is still a major issue regardless of the declining pregnancy rate. In 2006 birthrates among teenage girls age ranging from 15-17 were more than 3 times as high as†¦show more content†¦According to an article I read stated that adolescence become parents because their educational experiences show little or no promise. It is suggested that identifying young girls with academic and social emotional difficulties early on and intervening could have a positive impact on reversing teen adolescent behaviors such as teen pregnancy. (Goddings, Anne-Lise1,2 Burnett Heyes, Stephanie2,3,4 Bird, Geoffrey2,5 Viner, Russell M.1 Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne, 2002) In conclusion according to the data that was obtained it seems that both women are led to believe they are less than the white race per se. They are led to believe that it is natural to be looked at as statistics in society. These young women have lack of education on top of it all and need to be taught not only the pr oper skills needed to prevent pregnancy but taught that they are better than statistics and can excel at anything any other race can. As parent and teachers we need to spend more time with our children so they are not out engaging in negative risky behaviors. It is our responsibility! We are the adults, not the children. We must not wait until it is to late. It has become critical that we look into the underlying reasons so that we can get a better handle on this matter. TINA TRENT Bibliography Huberty, J., Siahpush, M., Beighle, A., Fuhrmeister, E.,Show MoreRelatedTeen Pregnancy And The Teenage Pregnancy Rates2094 Words   |  9 PagesPregnancy and parenthood is a significantly life- altering event that anyone could experience. These two life events inquire not only physical but mental obstacles. What happens when these events occur when your body is not physically developed and your mental maturity is not fully ripened? This happens too often amongst the teen age population. In the United States, teen pregnancies are the highest when compared to other developed countries. Teen births account for 10% of all births in the UnitedRead MoreTeen Pregnancy And Teenage Pregnancy2011 Words   |  9 Pagesbiggest problems among teenagers is teen pregnancy. Throughout high school and college, teenagers are getting pregnant at an age they are incapable of taking care of a child. Along with hearing about teens getting pregnant, television shows are displaying it to you like 16 and Pregnant. Though the pregnancy rates have fallen over previous years, the United States still has the highest rates than any other Western industrialized country. Along with the teen pregnancies comes sexually transmittedRead MoreIncreased Rates of Teen Pregnancy among Minorities1547 Words   |  6 PagesIncreased rates of teen pregnancy among minorities The incidence of teen births in the United States has reached a historic all time low throughout the last couple of years but teen girls are still giving birth to 1700 babies a week. However, minorities are still amongst the highest group of teenagers having children among the age group between 15 and 19 years of age. The highest ethnic groups were comprised of Hispanics and Non-Hispanic blacks making up 57% of all US teen births in 2011, accordingRead MoreCassidy Reid . Kendra Gallos. English Iii Honors . 27 March1800 Words   |  8 PagesEnglish III Honors 27 March 2017 How to Reduce Teenage Pregnancy in America A nightmare can strike, even when the eyes of it’s victims are wide open. It can be unexpected, terrifying, a nightmare to see the dreaded two lines on the test- especially as a teenager. Even if teenagers are old enough to decide whether or not they want to engage in sexual intercourse, the rate of teenage pregnancy should be reduced as much as possible. Teenage pregnancy is not only expensive, but also puts the lives ofRead MoreLife of a Teenager7946 Words   |  32 PagesThe Effects of Teenage Relationships Different relationships affect teenagers in various ways. Friends impact teenagers almost the same amount as their parents. Teenagers go to their friends for help or to ask questions that they could not ask their parents about. Most of the time their friends give them good advice but then there is the down side when they put pressure on their friends to do something like to smoke, drink, and do drugs. In most cases they tell their friends how to dress and actRead MoreEssay on Abstinence-Only Sex Education does work.1332 Words   |  6 PagesAbstinence-only Sex Education does work. Teenage sexual activity has sparked an outcry within the nation. With such activity comes a high price. Studies have shown that there has been a significant rise in the number of children with sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), emotional and psychological problems, and out-of-wedlock childbearing. Sex has always been discussed publically by the media, television shows, music and occasionally by parents and teachers in educational context. Teens hear themRead MorePsychosocial Development and the Effects of Teenage Pregnancy3953 Words   |  16 PagesPsychosocial Development and the Effects of Teenage Pregnancy Liberty University Abstract An estimated 400,000 teen girls, ages 15-19 years, give birth each year in the US. In today’s media sexual activity and teen parenting is often glamorize, but the truth of the matter is the reality is harshly different. Having a child during the teen’s formative years carries the high price of emotional, physical, and financial, not only to the mother, but father, child, and community. Parents, educatorsRead MoreThe New York City As A Major Obstacle For Receiving Quality Health Care3141 Words   |  13 PagesIntroduction New York City is composed of some of the world’s most unique and eccentric neighborhoods the world has ever seen. Amongst these neighborhoods, one can expect to find Bushwick (Community District 4) and Williamsburg (Community District 1), nestled in in the northern tip of Brooklyn borough. The earliest colonizers included the Dutch, French, Scandinavians, and English farmers. Today, however, the spectrum of racial distribution has changed drastically in which the top ethnic groups includeRead MorePremarital Sex And Its Effect On Society2946 Words   |  12 PagesImagine a situation where a young teenage girl has premarital sex due to the influence of her friends and ends up pregnant. Her friends blame her for getting pregnant and her boyfriend leaves her, pregnant and alone. She is ridiculed, talked about and has to walk the halls at school with the evidence under her shirt while her ex walks around like nothing happened. Society views sex as an average thing for people to d o when they are single, young and have no responsibilities. Premarital sex is oftenRead MoreSocial Inequality : Inequality And Inequality3119 Words   |  13 Pageschecking the same number of boxes on a form. They were likewise asked questions about which groups they principally identified with. They were then classified as relating to a group, the researchers had assigned as having a generally low economic status (black or Latino), a moderately high societal position, (Asian or white), or numerous groups (for instance, highly contrasting or multiracial ) (LaPlante, 2009). The individuals who identified with various groups announced either equivalent or higher mental

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Shannon and Weaver Model and Its Application free essay sample

Them in code, expressing the sources purpose in the form ofa message. Its fairly easy to think in terms of source and encoder when you are talking on the phone (transmitter in Shannons terminology). You are the source of the message and the phone is the encoder which does the Job of turning your sounds into electrical impulses. The distinction is not quite so obvious when you think of yourself communicating face-to-face. In person-to-person communication, the encoding process is performed by the motor skills of the source vocal mechanisms (lip and tongue movements, the vocal cords, the lungs, face muscles etc. muscles in the hand and so on. Some peoples encoding systems are not as efficient as others. So, for example, a disabled person might not be able to control movement of their limbs and so find it difficult to encode the intended non-verbal messages or they may communicate unintended messages. We will write a custom essay sample on Shannon and Weaver Model and Its Application or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page A person who has suffered throat cancer may have had their vocal cords removed. They can encode their messages verbally using an artificial aid, but much of the non-verbal messages most of us send via pitch, intonation, volume and so on cannot be encoded. Shannon was not particularly concerned with the communication of meanings. The inclusion of the encoding and decoding processes is very helpful to us since it draws our attention to the possibility of a mismatch between the operation of the encoding and decoding devices, which can cause semantic noise to be set up. With good reason, the source of the message may wonder whether the picture in the receivers head will bear any resemblance to whats in his/her own. Shannon-weaver: The Message The message of course is what communication is all about. Whatever is communicated is the message The Shannon-Weaver Model, in common with many others separates the message from ther components of the process of communication. In reality, though, you can only reasonably examine the message within the context of all the other interlinked elements. Whenever we are in contact with other people we and they are involved in sending and receiving messages. The crucial question for Communication Studies is: to what extent does the message received correspond to the message transmitted? Thats where all the other factors in the communication process come into play. The Shannon-Weaver model and others like it tends to portray the message as a relatively uncomplicated matter. Frequently the messages have meaning that is they refer to or are correlated according to some system with certain physical or conceptual entities. These considerations are irrelevant to the engineering problem. It may however be a criticism of the application of Shannons model to the more general area of human- to-human communication. Meanings are assumed to be somehow contained within the signs used in the message and the receiver can, as it were, take them out again. Matters such as the social context in which the message is transmitted, the assumptions made by source and receiver, their past experiences and so on are imply disregarded. In this respect, models, which incorporate such factors, are probably more revealing of the complexity of the communication process. Shannon- Weaver: The Channel The words channel and medium are often used interchangeably, if slightly inaccurately. The choice (a pretty stupid one above) of the appropriate channel is a vitally important choice in communication. Its obvious that you dont use the visual channel to communicate with the blind or the auditory channel with the deaf, but there are more subtle considerations to be taken into account as well Shannon- Weaver: Physical noise Shannon is generally considered to have been primarily concerned with physical (or mechanical or engineering) noise in the channel, i. e. unexplained variation in a communication channel or random error in the transmission of information. An example of physical noise is a loud motorbike roaring down the road while youre trying to hold a conversation However, it is possible for a message to be distorted by channel overload. Channel overload is not due to any noise source, but rather to the channel capacity being exceeded. You may come across that at a party where you are olding a conversation amidst lots of others going on around you or, perhaps, in a Communication lesson where everyone has split into small groups for discussion or simulations. Shannon and Weaver were primarily involved with the investigation of technological communication. Their model is perhaps more accurately referred to as a model of information theory (rather than communication theory). Consequently, their main concern was with the kind of physical (or mechanical) noise discussed above. Shannon-weaver: The Decoder Just as a source needs an encoder to translate her purposes into a message, so the receiver needs a decoder to retranslate. The decoder (receiver in Shannons paper) is an interesting and very useful development over, say, the Lasswell Formula. If you take a look at our discussion of the receiver, youll see that we considered how, for example, a blind person would not have the equipment to receive whatever non-verbal messages you send in the visual channel. The notion of a decoder reminds us that it is quite possible for a person to have all the equipment required to receive the messages you send (all five senses, any necessary technology and so on) and yet be unable to decode your messages. Shannon-weaver: The Receiver For communication to occur , there must be somebody at the other end of the channel. This person or persons can be called the receiver. To put it in Shannons terms, information transmitters and receivers must be similar systems. If they are not, communication cannot occur. What that probably meant as far as he was concerned was that you need a telephone at one end and a telephone at the other, not a telephone connected to a radio. In rather more obviously human terms, the receiver needs to have the equipment to receive the message. A totally blind person as the mental equipment to decode your gestures, but no system for receiving messages in the visual channel. So, your non-verbal messages are not received and youre wasting your energy.